Application of various sensors in lithium battery fire detection alarm of energy storage fire protection system

Infineon / Mitsubishi / Fuji / Semikron / Eupec / IXYS

Application of various sensors in lithium battery fire detection alarm of energy storage fire protection system

Posted Date: 2024-01-18

With the rapid development of new energy technology, energy storage fire-fighting lithium batteries are shining in many fields. However, the unique properties of lithium batteries have brought a problem to their development: the problem of thermal runaway of lithium batteries. In order to ensure the safe use of lithium batteries, the development and application of thermal runaway detection and warning devices has become urgent.

Globally, battery energy storage has become an indispensable technical pillar for the development of new energy. In order to meet the needs of peak load regulation, frequency regulation and new energy consumption, the installed capacity of power energy storage projects is huge, and more than 90% of them choose lithium battery energy storage systems. According to a new energy finance forecast, the domestic and foreign energy storage market will grow to 358GWh by 2030, with an average annual growth rate of more than 37%. However, how to deal with frequent fire accidents has become a top priority to ensure the healthy development of the industry.

This is like an invisible challenge hanging over the head of the energy storage lithium battery industry. The thermal runaway detection and warning device is like a guardian, silently guarding safety. It is not only a technical issue, but also the protection of human life and property. In the wave of new energy, we cannot ignore any aspect, because every detail is related to the common future of all mankind.

The fire protection technical solution for electrochemical energy storage cabins is the key to preventing fires in electrochemical energy storage cabins. It mainly covers two aspects: battery thermal runaway detection and fire extinguishing (suppression). The core of this solution is to build a complete thermal runaway detection and alarm system to ensure rapid response when a fire first breaks out, thereby effectively curbing the spread of fire.

Each energy storage cabin is regarded as an independent protection unit and is equipped with a regional thermal runaway detection and alarm system. This system has advanced warning capabilities and can detect relevant signals in the early stages of thermal runaway of battery modules. This early warning mechanism greatly increases the precious time to respond to fires, allowing fire-fighting work to be carried out in advance, thereby nipping fires in their bud.

The thermal runaway detection and alarm system consists of the following:

·Fire alarm control device for energy storage power station (fire alarm controller): It is the data processing center and communication center of the electrochemical energy storage cabin fire extinguishing system. It has functions such as detector signal processing, controlling the start of fire extinguishing devices, linkage alarms, and BMS linkage communication. Installation location: Wall-mounted at a suitable location on the wall inside the energy storage cabin.

·Composite fire detector: Using high-sensitivity sensors, it can detect the temperature, carbon monoxide, photoelectric smoke, VOC and hydrogen signals in the energy storage cabin before a fire occurs, detect abnormalities and proactively report them. Installation location: Evenly installed on the top of the energy storage cabin, connected to the fire alarm controller in the cabin through CAN bus communication.

·Emergency start and stop button:It has the function of on-site emergency start or stop of on-site equipment, and can also conveniently convert the control mode of the gas fire extinguishing system from automatic control to manual control on site. Installation location: At the external hatch of the energy storage cabin.

·Logic expansion module:The input and output of the fire alarm controller are expanded externally through CAN bus communication, and the commands of the alarm controller can be executed to input/output signals externally. Installation location: Install near control/feedback equipment.

·Degassing indicator light:Installed at the external evacuation channel of the energy storage cabin (above the hatch), when the perfluorohexanone fire extinguishing agent is released, the fire alarm controller will activate the exhaust indicator light and issue a light indication to remind personnel to pay attention and take corresponding measures.

·Audible alarm:Installed at the external evacuation channel of the energy storage cabin (above the hatch), when the fire alarm controller receives the fire signal transmitted by the detector, it will link the audible and visual alarm.

·Communication cable:Used to connect communication lines between various devices and controllers.

This thermal runaway detection and alarm system is well designed and easy to operate. It can provide comprehensive and efficient fire protection for electrochemical energy storage cabins and is an important cornerstone for ensuring the safe operation of energy storage power stations.

Application of sensors in composite fire detectors for energy storage power stations

The fire detection device for electrochemical energy storage power stations uses a highly integrated method to integrate measurement parameters such as hydrogen, carbon monoxide, VOC gas, smoke, and temperature to monitor and analyze the thermal runaway characteristics of energy storage batteries. The detection device adopts a miniaturized design and can be installed on the top of the energy storage container, the top or outside of the battery rack, and inside the battery box. Composite detectors for lithium batteries can detect early signals of thermal runaway and make corresponding logical judgments. When the fire signal reaches the set threshold, the perfluorohexanone fire extinguishing device is activated in a linkage manner. The perfluorohexanone fire extinguishing agent quickly acts on the out-of-control battery cells through the pipe network and nozzles, extinguishing the fire to the budding stage.

Using high-sensitivity sensors, CO, hydrogen H2, VOC, photoelectric smoke and temperature in the battery box can be detected before a fire occurs. provides imported CO sensor TGS5141, hydrogen sensor TGS2616, VOC sensor TGS2602, ion smoke sensor NIS-09C and temperature and humidity sensor HTW-211 to monitor CO gas concentration, hydrogen concentration, VOC concentration, smoke concentration and battery in the protective area. Changes in surface temperature can intelligently determine whether the lithium battery has thermal runaway.

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