Comparative analysis of domestic and foreign silicon carbide product standards
In order to explore the status and differences of domestic and foreign standards for silicon carbide, this article researched, analyzed and selected Chinese national standards, industry standards, international standards and relevant standards of the United States, Europe, Japan, Russia and Romania, and selected the physical properties of silicon carbide, silicon carbide Abrasive chemical analysis methods, silicon carbide-containing refractory material chemical analysis methods, silicon carbide wafer product specifications, etc. are compared with standards.
Silicon carbide has many advantages such as large band gap, high thermal conductivity, large electron saturation drift rate, high critical breakdown electric field, low dielectric constant and good chemical stability. It is a third-generation new semiconductor material with broad development potential. . Silicon carbide wafers and epitaxial substrates are mainly used to manufacture discrete devices such as power devices and radio frequency devices. They can be widely used in modern industrial fields such as new energy vehicles, 5G communications, photovoltaic power generation, rail transit, smart grids, and aerospace. In my country, " "New Infrastructure" plays an important role in all major areas. The Chinese government attaches great importance to the research and development of third-generation semiconductor materials represented by silicon carbide, among which third-generation semiconductors have been included in the development focus of key strategic materials.
On March 13, 2021, Xinhuanet published the "The Fourteenth Five-Year Plan for National Economic and Social Development of the People's Republic of China and the Outline of Long-term Goals for 2035", in which the field of "integrated circuits" specifically proposed silicon carbide and gallium nitride. Semiconductors with wide bandgaps must be developed.
Silicon carbide and gallium nitride are both third-generation semiconductor wide-bandgap semiconductor materials. The fact that they can be nominated in the "14th Five-Year Plan" shows that their importance has risen to the national level. I believe that with the help of the country, the country will quickly form an environment suitable for the development of third-generation semiconductors, and the prospects are worth looking forward to.
On the other hand, silicon carbide is of great significance to boost the local economy. For example: Shanxi Province, which will make every effort to build "silicon carbide" as a leading product during the "14th Five-Year Plan" period, mentioned in the "Shanxi Province's "14th Five-Year Plan" New Product Development Plan": to promote 6-inch and above gallium arsenide , silicon carbide and other second/third generation semiconductor materials and sapphire materials are industrialized on a large scale, and basic research on new materials such as carbon-based semiconductors is carried out. It can be seen that silicon carbide is a key product developed during the "14th Five-Year Plan" period in Shanxi Province.
Therefore, it is necessary to compare the silicon carbide product standards between my country and developed countries and regions such as the United States, Japan, and Europe, analyze the advancements and deficiencies of my country's silicon carbide standards, and learn from and quote the advanced experience and technical standards of developed countries to improve the quality of silicon carbide. Promoting the transformation and upgrading of the silicon carbide industry is of great significance.
1. Overview of silicon carbide products at home and abroad
1.1 Domestic overview of silicon carbide industry
Some countries in the world have started early in this field, with 6-inch silicon carbide substrates already in mass production and 8-inch silicon carbide substrates successfully developed. In China, 4 inches are the main products, and 6 inches are still in the research stage. my country's silicon carbide single crystal substrate materials have long been dependent on imports, and their high prices and unstable supply have greatly restricted the development of related domestic industries. At present, there are more than 200 silicon carbide smelting companies in China, with an annual production capacity of more than 2.2 million tons (including more than 1.2 million tons of green silicon carbide blocks and about 1 million tons of black silicon carbide blocks); there are more than 300 sand processing and micro powder production companies. The company has an annual production capacity of more than 2 million tons. Domestic silicon carbide industry manufacturers are shown in Table 1.
Table 1 Domestic manufacturers in the SiC industry chain
1.2 Overseas overview of silicon carbide industry
Driven by applications such as new energy vehicles and industrial power supplies, the global market size of silicon carbide for power electronics continues to grow, with the market size reaching US$600 million in 2020. In terms of the competitive landscape, the business model of the industry's leading companies is dominated by the IDM model. The main market shares are occupied by Infineon, Cree, Rohm and STMicroelectronics. The competition gap between domestic and foreign manufacturers is large.
In semiconductor applications, SiC is mainly used in the manufacture of power electronic devices. From the perspective of the SiC device manufacturing process sequence, the cost of substrate and epitaxy accounts for the largest proportion of the manufacturing cost of SiC devices. Among them, the cost of SiC substrate accounts for 50%, and the cost of SiC epitaxy accounts for 25%. These two major processes are SiC important part of the device.
In terms of upstream raw material supply, high-purity quartz sand is one of the main raw materials for silicon carbide. Due to the high preparation cost and high processing technology requirements of high-purity quartz sand, there are currently few manufacturers in the world capable of mass-producing high-purity quartz sand, as shown in Table 2. From the perspective of downstream demand, from 2018 to 2019, driven by applications such as new energy vehicles and industrial power supplies, the global market size of silicon carbide for power electronics increased from US$430 million to US$564 million. The market size in 2020 will exceed US$600 million. Dollar.
Table 2 Domestic and foreign leading companies producing high-purity quartz sand
Judging from the global business operations of silicon carbide substrates, the American CREE company took the leading position in 2018, with a market share of 62%, followed by the American II-VI company, with a market share of approximately 16%. Overall, American manufacturers occupy a dominant position in the silicon carbide market (see Table 3 for details).
Table 3 Situation of foreign manufacturers in the SiC industry chain
2. Overview of silicon carbide product standardization at home and abroad
As an inorganic chemical raw material with a relatively simple chemical composition, silicon carbide has few relevant product standards, most of which are chemical analysis standards and testing standards for silicon carbide. The current domestic and foreign silicon carbide product standards include GB/T 2480 "General Abrasive Silicon Carbide", GOST 26327 "Technical Specification for Silicon Carbide Abrasives" and SR 5064 "Silicon Carbide".
2.1 Overview of silicon carbide product standardization in my country
China has basically established a silicon carbide standard system consisting of national standards, industry standards and local standards. There are currently 24 national standards related to silicon carbide, 38 industry standards, and 3 local standards. There is only one current technical standard for silicon carbide products in my country, namely GB/T 2480 "General Abrasive Silicon Carbide".
2.2 Overview of foreign silicon carbide product standardization
At present, the market economy of most developed countries in the world has been operating for a long time, with sound laws and regulations, and standardized competition mechanisms. They often rely on contractual agreements between buyers and sellers, and only refer to terms, codes, dimensional tolerances, and particle size labels related to the coordination/matching of silicon carbide products. / Develop national standards or association standards for testing and analysis methods of particle size distribution and various quality performance indicators. Judging from the development of standards for silicon carbide and its products by foreign developed countries and organizations, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) currently has 6 standards related to silicon carbide and its products; there are 14 current standards related to silicon carbide in the United States; and the current standards in Europe There are 49 silicon carbide related standards; there are 5 current silicon carbide related standards in Japan; there are 8 current silicon carbide related standards in Russia.
There are currently two foreign silicon carbide-related product standards, namely the Romanian standard SR 5064 "Silicon Carbide" and the Russian standard GOST 26327 "Technical Specification for Silicon Carbide Abrasives".
3. Comparative research on domestic and foreign silicon carbide product standards
3.1 Comparable domestic and foreign standards for silicon carbide
Through the collection and analysis of relevant standards for silicon carbide products, Table 4 to Table 7 list comparable standards at home and abroad.Table 4 Comparison of physical properties of silicon carbide standards
Table 5 Standard comparison of chemical analysis methods for silicon carbide abrasives
Table 6 Comparison of standard chemical analysis methods for silicon carbide-containing refractory materials
Table 7 Comparison of silicon carbide wafer standards
3.2 Comparison of key indicators of silicon carbide products
3.2.1 Standard comparison of physical properties of silicon carbide
The national standard for the technical conditions of silicon carbide products currently implemented in our country is GB/T 2480 "General Abrasive Silicon Carbide", which stipulates the particle size composition, chemical composition, magnetic content, ferroalloy grains, density and other items according to different brands according to different uses. The Russian National Standards Committee issued the national standard GOST 26327 "Technical Specifications for Silicon Carbide Abrasives" on the technical conditions of silicon carbide abrasives on November 1, 1984, which stipulates the relevant technical level indicators of green silicon carbide abrasives and black silicon carbide abrasives, including particle size Composition, chemical composition, magnetic content, density, powdering rate and other items. The national standard SR 5064 "Silicon Carbide" issued by the Romanian Standards Association (ASRO) stipulates the type, physical and chemical properties, volume density and other items of silicon carbide.
Due to limited space, this article only introduces the classification of silicon carbide:
Classification of silicon carbide
The silicon carbide produced industrially in China is mainly black silicon carbide (SiC content is about 95%) and green silicon carbide (SiC content is about 97% or more). GB/T 2480 "General Abrasive Silicon Carbide" divides abrasive silicon carbide into black silicon carbide for ceramic bonded abrasive tools and abrasive belts; green silicon carbide for ceramic bonded abrasive tools and abrasive belts; black carbonized for organic bonded abrasive tools. Silicon; green silicon carbide for organic binder abrasive tools; black silicon carbide for hand-polished sand pages; green silicon carbide for hand-polished sand pages.
The Russian national standard GOST 26327 "Technical Specifications for Silicon Carbide Abrasives" divides silicon carbide abrasives into two types: green silicon carbide and black silicon carbide. The quality grade and particle size classification are detailed in Table 8.
Table 8 Classification of silicon carbide according to Russian GOST standards
Romanian national standard SR 5064 "Silicon Carbide" divides silicon carbide into green silicon carbide (GC) and black silicon carbide (GC) according to color; according to silicon carbide content (SiC), it is divided into high-quality silicon carbide (S) and ordinary silicon carbide ( N).
3.3 Comparison conclusion
It can be seen from the comparison results of various standard indicators:
(1) Foreign standards for silicon carbide, such as GOST 26327, SR 5064 and JISR 6111, all set physical and chemical performance standards for silicon carbide products, and their index requirements are looser than Chinese national standards. However, in the process of foreign technical exchanges and trade cooperation, we found that the standard indicators of silicon carbide production enterprises and application enterprises in developed countries are far superior to their national standards and our national standards. Some items are not included in the testing and control items in my country's national standards and the actual quality control of some enterprises, such as: tap density, specific surface area, cleanliness, toughness, conductivity, etc.; (2) For silicon carbide granular sand and micro powder products, Developed countries are divided into various brands of special products according to their uses and in accordance with the principles of dedicated use, precision and comprehensive utilization. The enterprise standard index requirements of special products are also different, allowing producers and users to find the best combination point. Produced the greatest benefit; (3) Judging from the comparison results of the standard comparison of chemical analysis methods for silicon carbide abrasives and the standard comparison of chemical analysis methods for refractory materials containing silicon carbide, the comparison projects of my country's national standards are better than those of the United States, the European Union and Japan. It is relatively complete for developed countries and regions, but there are also individual projects that are not involved, such as silicon carbide abrasives, surface silicic acid, and full silicon;
(4) Judging from the comparison results of relevant standards for silicon carbide wafers, my country’s national standards have formulated relevant standards for silicon carbide single crystal polished wafers and wafer testing, while developed countries and regions such as the United States, the European Union, and Japan are not involved. Regarding the testing environment for surface defects of silicon carbide epitaxial wafers, my country's national standards have higher requirements than those of the European Union and Japan.
4. Analysis of countermeasures and suggestions
4.1 Advantages of domestic silicon carbide product standards
Through research, it was found that China Electronics Technology (Shanxi) Silicon Carbide Materials Industrial Base is the largest silicon carbide material supply base in the country, and its products are mainly targeted at the domestic market. At present, the domestic silicon carbide material supply base has fully mastered the preparation process of high-purity silicon carbide powder and the preparation process of 4-inch high-purity semi-insulating silicon carbide single crystal substrate, forming a complete system from silicon carbide powder preparation, crystal growth, wafer processing, A complete set of silicon carbide material development lines including epitaxy verification, and the first commercial mass production of high-purity silicon carbide single crystals in China. The purity of high-purity silicon carbide powder and the crystal yield rate are among the internationally advanced levels, completely solving foreign concerns about my country's carbonization. In the situation of silicon blockade, complete independent supply has been achieved.
4.2 Insufficient domestic silicon carbide product standards
At present, our country has become a major producer of silicon carbide, but it is not yet a powerful country in the silicon carbide industry. From a product perspective, domestic silicon carbide products are mainly concentrated in the mid-to-low-end market, and are truly used in high-precision technologies, such as advanced grinding powder, precision electronic components, etc. The production technology of silicon carbide products is still monopolized by foreign countries; in carbonization Regarding silicon deep-processing products, the quality management of granular sand and micro-powder products is not precise enough, and the product quality is not stable enough. The technical content of domestic products is low, and there is still a large gap compared with the advanced levels of developed countries and regions such as the United States, Japan, and Europe. , There is a lack of domestic high-end technology products; In addition, Western developed countries have long been engaged in the research and development and production of this product and have rich experience, and their product indicators are ahead of our country. Moreover, the product verification cycle is long, product technical barriers are difficult to break, and it is difficult for domestic products to enter the international market;
Finally, silicon carbide is a developing product with large market demand, but its technology is immature and its standards are in a low development state. For example, there is no unified packaging standard and incomplete inspection standards.
4.3 Countermeasures and suggestions to improve the development of my country’s silicon carbide industry In view of the shortcomings in the development of silicon carbide products in my country, the following suggestions and countermeasures are put forward.
(1) Formulate policies and implementation details for cultivating and supporting silicon carbide products
(2) Revise and improve the quality standard system for silicon carbide products
(3) Use the power of science and technology to strengthen technological innovation
Review Editor: Huang Fei
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