Efficiency enhancement and voltage stabilization, an indispensable PFC chip in energy storage equipment
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Efficiency enhancement and voltage stabilization, an indispensable PFC chip in energy storage equipment

Posted Date: 2024-01-29
Electronic Enthusiast Network reported (Text/Huang Shanming) For energy storage equipment, charging and discharging are its basic functions, but there may be energy loss during this process, resulting in a decrease in overall energy efficiency. At the same time, the dynamic response characteristics of the energy storage system may not be guaranteed, reducing the overall stability and easily causing overload. The power factor correction (PFC) controller chip was born to solve these problems. For current energy storage equipment, the PFC chip is also an important component. How do PFC chips work? The working principle of PFC chips in energy storage is mainly based on active power factor correction (APFC) technology, which improves the efficiency of electric energy use and reduces the burden on the power grid by adjusting the phase relationship between current and voltage in the circuit. Simply put, PFC chips play an important role in energy storage systems by controlling input current, stabilizing DC bus voltage, adjusting dynamic response, and providing protection functions. The so-called power factor refers to the ratio of effective power to apparent power in the power supply system, and is an important indicator to measure the efficiency of electric energy utilization. Generally speaking, this ratio should be close to 1, which means that the utilization efficiency of electrical energy is high and the energy loss is small. Specifically, the work of the PFC chip can be divided into several steps. The first is rectification and filtering. The alternating current is converted into direct current through the rectifier, and then the high-frequency noise is removed through the filter circuit. Then use a BOOST circuit or other topology to boost the voltage to the desired level. The BOOST circuit is simple and efficient, and can provide a certain boost capability. At the same time, the PFC chip controls the on and off of the switch tube to adjust the current in the inductor so that it follows the voltage waveform changes, thereby achieving power factor correction. Usually an inductor is connected after the full-bridge output as an energy storage element to store and release energy to stabilize the output voltage. Some advanced PFC solutions use digital control, such as digital control PFC solutions based on STM32G4, which can improve the intelligence level and performance of the system. To improve efficiency, wide bandgap devices (such as SiC or GaN) can be used, which have good reverse recovery characteristics and help reduce conduction losses and improve efficiency. Therefore, the role of PFC chips in energy storage systems is to ensure the effective utilization of electrical energy and efficient operation of equipment, while also helping to meet relevant power standards and regulatory requirements. In this way, energy storage equipment can not only better serve users, but also reduce pressure on the grid. And by improving the power factor, the PFC chip can reduce the ineffective loss of electrical energy, allowing energy storage devices to use electrical energy more efficiently during charging and discharging. This is particularly important for portable energy storage devices, which often need to operate for long periods of time without an external power source. The performance of an energy storage device depends not only on its storage capacity, but also on its efficiency and impact on the grid. Using PFC chips can improve overall performance and make energy storage equipment more competitive in the market. PFC chip solutions in the market In the 1990s, Professor Erickson and others from the University of Colorado proposed the concept of a single-stage PFC converter, aiming to reduce the number of components and reduce the cost by merging the MOSFET of the front Boost circuit and the subsequent Flyback or Forward converter. costs and improve efficiency. With the development of power electronics technology, PFC technology has been widely used, especially in the fields of electric power, metallurgy, chemical industry, coal, communications, home appliances and other fields. Many PFC chip companies have also appeared in the market, providing solutions for various scenarios. For example, major manufacturers such as ST, TI, PI, Infineon, and ON Semiconductor have corresponding solutions. Domestic companies also have corresponding excellent solutions, such as Jingfeng Mingyuan's BP2628. This chip supports critical continuous mode or intermittent mode, which can achieve zero current turn-off of the diode, helping to improve conversion efficiency and reduce electromagnetic interference. And BP2628 also has built-in complete protection functions, including cycle-by-cycle overcurrent protection, output overvoltage protection, chip power supply undervoltage protection, feedback pin short circuit protection, chip internal overheating protection and other protection functions to ensure reliable operation of the system. At the same time, the feedback pin short-circuit protection function can also be used to perform PFC-level switch control to reduce the standby power consumption of the system. Nanxin Technology has also previously launched a PFC control chip SC3201, which can meet the power factor and input current harmonic requirements of medium and high-power chargers and adapters. This solution also has core technologies such as no auxiliary winding, integrated THD optimization, and support for segmented output. The KP2806A launched by BiMicro is a high-performance, quasi-resonant (QR) boost (Boost) constant voltage PFC chip that can adaptively work in critical conduction mode (CRM) and discontinuous conduction mode ( DCM). It is packaged in SOT23-6 and can occupy less PCB space through multi-function pin reuse. Meixinsheng's MT9570 is characterized by optimized total harmonic distortion (THD) performance, thereby easily achieving PF>0.99. THD Xinpengwei also launched a highly integrated totem pole bridgeless PFC digital-analog hybrid control chip PN6811 uses constant on-time control to achieve high power factor. The system works in CRM/DCM state, with streamlined peripherals and omitting the rectifier bridge to improve efficiency and reduce heat generation. It is very suitable for applications requiring high efficiency and high power density. Of course, there are many PFC solutions in the market, and with the popularization of third-generation semiconductor materials, such as the addition of GaN switch tubes and SiC diodes, PFC can improve the working efficiency, reduce the size of the PFC boost inductor, and improve power density. summary PFC controller chips are crucial to improving the performance of energy storage products. It not only improves the efficiency of energy conversion, but also optimizes the load characteristics of energy storage products, reduces current spikes, and adapts to different load conditions, thus ensuring the safety of energy storage products. Efficient, stable and safe operation. Statement: The content and pictures of this article are written by the resident author or reprinted with the authorization of the resident partner website. The opinions expressed in this article represent only the author's own and do not represent the position of Electronic Enthusiast Network. The article and its accompanying pictures are for engineers’ learning purposes only. If there is any content infringement or other violations, please contact this site for processing.Report complaints
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