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How does MBSE work for EV and stationary battery energy storage systems?

How does MBSE work for EV and stationary battery energy storage systems?

Posted Date: 2023-07-25

Mannequin-based methods engineering (MBSE) is complete. The Worldwide Council on Methods Engineering (INCOSE) defines MBSE because the “formalized utility of modeling to help system necessities, design, evaluation, verification, and validation actions starting within the conceptual design part and persevering with all through improvement and later life cycle phases.” It’s particularly relevant to complicated methods of methods like EVs and stationary battery power storage methods (BESS) that require a variety of engineering disciplines.

This FAQ begins with an outline of basic methods engineering ideas and requirements, evaluations the quite a few complicated methods that make up a accomplished EV battery pack or BESS set up, appears at MBSE and the way it suits with EV and BESS improvement actions, considers how MBSE is used within the automotive trade with a deeper dive into the advantages of utilizing BMSE for power storage methods and closes by a sophisticated MBSE implementation for EV fleet evaluation and presents a view of the return on funding (ROI) from MBSE.

Methods engineering is a well-established self-discipline that describes methodologies for designing, implementing, utilizing, and disposing of methods. It’s described by ISO 15288 on system life cycle processes and encompasses EIA 632 which incorporates processes for methods engineering and IEEE 1220 information for sensible methods engineering (Determine 1).

How does MBSE work for EV and stationary battery energy storage systems?
Determine 1. MBSE helps the necessities for system engineering as outlined by a number of trade requirements (Picture: MDPI sustainability).

Conventional methods engineering is carried out utilizing intensive paper and digital documentation-centric approaches. That’s the place MBSE departs. Like the sooner approaches, MBSE is a formalized methodology. However as an alternative of being document-centric, MBSE employs area fashions to develop digital twins of complicated methods. A digital twin is a completely digital illustration of the bodily system that duplicates all of the performance of the bodily system and is normally maintained on the cloud.

Digital twins are supported by digital threads that embrace the whole historical past of improvement actions and modifications to the digital twin from preliminary system conceptualization to design improvement and simulation by means of manufacturing, use, and retirement of the system. Area fashions present digital representations of real-world objects or methods utilizing the pure language of the particular area. In MBSE, area fashions are the first means of data change and exchange document-based exchanges.

MBSE within the automotive trade
MBSE is already broadly used within the automotive trade to research, develop, design, confirm, and validate applied sciences, from the preliminary idea part to automobile manufacturing and after-sale servicing. In the present day’s cars, and particularly EVs, are cyber-physical methods of methods and are precisely the kind of functions MBSE is optimized for. Verification (simulation) and validation (testing) are essential facets of MBSE within the car trade. The trade makes use of mannequin within the loop (MIL), software program within the loop (SIL), processor within the loop (PIL), {hardware} within the loop (HIL) part within the loop (CIL), and automobile within the loop (VIL) simulation and testing. Some parts of MBSE embrace:

  • Behavioral evaluation
  • Methods structure improvement
  • Necessities traceability help
  • Design change affect evaluation and monitoring
  • Efficiency Evaluation
  • Simulation and testing

The design of EV batteries and BESS installations includes electrochemical, electronics, thermal, mechanical, and different engineering disciplines in the end resulting in integration into a bigger system like an EV or utility grid together with. Facets of EV battery design embrace (Determine 2):

    • Battery materials design
    • Battery system engineering
    • Battery administration system design
    • Battery cell engineering
    • Battery module and pack engineering
How does MBSE work for EV and stationary battery energy storage systems?
Determine 2. An EV battery pack is a fancy system of methods which are nicely fitted to MBSE (Picture: Dassault Methods).

Stepping by means of the quadrants
One other technique to visualize MBSE is to take a look at it as a sequence of 4 quadrants with the decrease proper quadrant being the vacation spot of the method the place the bodily system is realized. The quadrants characterize mixtures of the logical description of the system and the precise bodily system. It begins within the higher left quadrant with an in depth logical description of system operation and drives towards the decrease proper quadrant the place the bodily system is realized (Determine 3).

How does MBSE work for EV and stationary battery energy storage systems?
Determine 3.  An MBSE mannequin contains logical and bodily parts that feed into the ultimate mannequin of the bodily system (Picture: Carnegie Mellon College).

The method begins with the conceptual drawback description that features a sequence of efficiency objectives or specs for the system, like “we'd like an EV battery pack that helps a variety of 300 km, it must recharge in half-hour, and so forth.” The 2 operational quadrants characterize the wants of assorted stakeholders together with, within the case of EVs, drivers, varied companies, engineering, manufacturing, upkeep, and different teams. As soon as adequately outlined, the knowledge within the operational and system logical quadrants stays comparatively secure all through the event course of.

The bodily quadrants are the place the system structure and implementation are outlined and developed. These quadrants are additionally the place simulation and testing of the digital twin are extensively used till the design is accomplished and the bodily system is produced. Throughout the operational lifetime of the system, modifications to the bodily design may result from a variety of wants like including extra superior applied sciences, implementing government-initiated security recollects, and so forth.

Vitality storage and MBSE
MBSE platforms can be found which have been optimized for battery system improvement. designing power storage methods is a fancy course of that features system geometry and measurement, cell chemistry, cooling BMS, and different elements.

Design reuse is a key good thing about MBSE. Frequent options exist between battery packs in numerous EV platforms in varied BESS installations. MBSE can be utilized to shortly perceive what could be reused in particular functions by connecting {the electrical}, digital, mechanical, community, and software program engineering groups in a collaborative digital setting to grasp the alternatives to reuse as many parts as doable from present and former platforms.

System efficiency could be optimized utilizing MBSE to stability doubtlessly conflicting attributes like thermal management and charging/discharging charges. Issues can embrace complicated interactions between cell chemistries, cell sizes and geometries, thermal administration applied sciences, BMS performance, and charger and powertrain designs. And purposeful security concerns could be always monitored and up to date throughout the design course of and all through the operational lifetime of the system.

Manufacturing course of optimization is one other essential good thing about MBSE. Because the system is being developed, new supplies or constructions could also be thought of. MBSE permits the design crew to work collaboratively with the manufacturing engineering crew to ensure the design could be efficiently produced and launched into the market. On-going upkeep wants may also be simulated, and the design validated. Lastly, the digital twin and digital thread help a suggestions loop from the sphere to the meeting line for steady enchancment in manufacturing processes and system efficiency.

Subsequent-gen MBSE for EVs
Researchers on the Argonne Nationwide Laboratory Automobile & Methods Mobility Group (VMS) have developed a sophisticated MBSE useful resource known as AMBER to deal with the distinctive challenges associated to growing superior mobility methods like EVs. AMBER makes intensive use of metadata info to help the event of particular person EVs or fleets of hundreds of thousands of EVs. AMBER contains an end-to-end MBSE workflow supervisor, together with MIL, SIL, HIL, CIL, and VIL simulations and it helps quite a few MBSE actions particularly associated to EVs together with:

  • Particular person automobile power consumption and price evaluation.
  • Vitality-efficient controls are enabled by connectivity and automation methods.
  • Measuring power affect of latest applied sciences on the automobile stage.
  • Measuring the affect of latest applied sciences on the transportation system stage.

EV battery methods and BESS installations share the traits of excessive system complexities, excessive environmental affect complexities, and lengthy lifespans that make them nicely fitted to utilizing MBSE and may expertise constructive returns on funding (ROIs). As well as, industries like aerospace, power, and automotive have already got intensive expertise with conventional methods engineering practices simplifying and dashing the adoption of MBSE.

The preliminary prices of adopting MBSE could be vital and embrace new digital infrastructure and doable migration of legacy fashions and knowledge into the MBSE setting. Subsequent, MBSE requires a a lot bigger funding in mannequin improvement and validation. As soon as the design and implementation course of has begun, MBSE can cut back prices by means of early defect identification utilizing the digital twin, design reuse, enhancements in traceability and requirements conformance, and so forth. The funding in MBSE takes place over a restricted time interval, whereas the beneficial properties are loved for for much longer. Consequently, MBSE can present a major ROI in methods like EV battery packs and BESS (Determine 4).

How does MBSE work for EV and stationary battery energy storage systems?
Determine 4. MBSE delivers a constructive ROI for long-life complicated methods like EV battery packs and BESS (Picture: MDPI methods)

MBSE is nicely fitted to use with EV battery packs and BESS design. It helps the methods engineering course of necessities of ISO 15288, EIA 632, and IEEE 1220 and is already broadly used within the automotive and power industries. Using digital twins and digital threads permits cross-functional collaboration amongst numerous engineering disciplines and helps ongoing design enhancements all through the system life cycle. And for complicated methods of methods like EV battery packs and BESS, the usage of MBSE supplies a constructive monetary ROI.

AMBER, Automobile and Mobility Methods Argonne Nationwide Laboratory
Battery Modeling and Simulation, Siemens
Design of a Customizable Check Bench of an Electrical Automobile Powertrain for Studying Functions Utilizing
Mannequin-Based mostly System Engineering, MDPI sustainability
Financial Evaluation of Mannequin-Based mostly Methods Engineering, MDPI methods
MBSE Initiative, INCOS
Mannequin-Based mostly Methods Engineering Method to Battery Design, Dassault Methods
Mannequin-Based mostly Design and Integration of Giant Li-ion Battery Methods, Nationwide Renewable Vitality Laboratory