Hybrid technology solves 5G radio frequency filtering problems under communication standard upgrade
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Hybrid technology solves 5G radio frequency filtering problems under communication standard upgrade

Posted Date: 2024-02-01

Electronic Enthusiast Network reports (Text/Li Ningyuan) Filters, the core components for filtering signals in RF front-end modules, occupy the largest share of the RF front-end market. The huge demand for higher bandwidth and faster data rates in the 5G era, coupled with the application of technologies such as Massive MIMO and carrier aggregation, has put forward higher requirements for RF filter performance.

Currently, filter technologies represented by SAW, BAW (FBAR) and ceramic filter technologies meet a wide range of application needs in various applications. With the upgrade of communication standards, the number of frequency bands has increased, and higher-level communication systems must be backward compatible. The increase in the number of frequency bands requires a continuous increase in the number of RF front-end power amplifiers, switches, and filters. Filters based on Hybrid technology can solve this challenge.

Excellent characteristics of current mainstream filters

The construction of 5G is in full swing, and ceramic filters also play an indispensable role in the construction of 5G base stations. The explosion of ceramic filters in the past two years is obvious to all. The weight and volume of 5G base station equipment will be more stringent than in the 4G era. Filters must be miniaturized and integrated. Therefore, smaller and lighter ceramic dielectric filters will gradually replace traditional metal cavity filters. become mainstream.

During operation, electromagnetic wave resonance occurs inside the ceramic medium, and there is no need to fix the resonator, so the size of the dielectric filter is smaller. In addition to the material itself, ceramic powder has a higher Q value than metal cavities, which greatly reduces insertion loss and has higher out-of-band suppression characteristics.

The SAW and BAW (FBAR) filters used in mobile electronic devices all use MEMS technology and are currently the most commonly used filters in mobile phones. The development of SAW surface acoustic wave filters is closely related to the rapid development of mobile communication technology, and its applications can be found in various mobile communication devices.

SAW uses the piezoelectric effect and surface acoustic wave propagation characteristics for filtering. In filtering applications, it has a medium frequency bandwidth, strong anti-interference ability, good selectivity, and is not prone to aging. These are the outstanding advantages of SAW, which are well adapted to the needs of modern communication systems. However, SAW has a large insertion loss and does not perform well at high temperatures.

The principle of BAW bulk acoustic wave filter is similar to that of SAW, but the acoustic wave characteristic is vertical propagation. Compared with SAW, BAW performs better in high frequency bands, and its insertion loss is lower and better. The most representative of BAW and the one that is highly in line with the development trend of 5G is the FBAR filter.

The FBAR filter uses a silicon substrate, and with the help of MEMS technology and thin film technology, it has a higher Q value. The high electrical Q factor value obtained through advanced processes allows the device to maintain higher performance in higher frequency bands and larger bandwidths. At the same time, the FBAR filter is applicable to a wide range of frequencies and has steep attenuation characteristics that can achieve high-frequency selectivity. It is also insensitive to temperature changes and has very low loss.

Complementing the continuous advancement of communication technology, the market's requirements for the size, energy consumption, functions, frequency bands, etc. of RF filters are constantly increasing. If the excellent characteristics of several mainstream filters can be combined, it will undoubtedly be better adapted to the future 5G. Development, Hybrid technology was born.

HybridHybrid technology solves communication development problems

Currently, many manufacturers are promoting Hybrid technology to meet the challenges of 5G filters. For example, Taiyo Yuden’s Hybrid technology is a hybrid based on FBAR, SAW and multi-layer ceramic technologies, allowing it to coexist with current communication systems. wide-bandwidth, high-attenuation characteristics. It can be seen from Taiyo Yuden's technical information that Hybrid technology achieves a wider frequency band than FBAR, and at the same time has higher attenuation characteristics than ceramic filters.

Yunta Technology (Annucci) has made Hybrid hybrid based on electromagnetic and acoustic waves. The two work together to solve the problem of large bandwidth of 5G radio frequency filtering. According to official data, products based on Hybrid hybrid technology can achieve high sideband roll-off and high suppression. The AnyBand series of products has been developed.

Xinhe Semiconductor has been working in the IPD industry for a long time and is one of the major manufacturers of IPD filter design in the world. IPD technology is very suitable for developing high-frequency and broadband filters. The core and semiconductor are combined with IPD and FBAR. Through Hybrid technology, the different advantages of electromagnetic and mechanical wave devices can be combined. IPD provides a wider frequency band, and FBAR provides a higher Q value and steep attenuation characteristics, allowing various passive functions to be coordinated in Hybrid technology to realize a high-performance, highly integrated 5G radio frequency front-end.

How the hybrid design combines the respective advantages of the two has a high threshold, but it also shows performance that is more in line with the future development of 5G.

summary

The implementation of 5G technology has driven the market demand for radio frequency devices. Filters with obvious advantages in high frequency bands are undoubtedly the focus of competition for market share. In order to solve the increasingly complex 5G communication requirements, the importance of filters based on Hybrid technology is self-evident.


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