Important PCS in home energy storage power supply
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Important PCS in home energy storage power supply

Posted Date: 2024-02-03
Electronic Enthusiast Network reports (Text/Huang Shanming) The establishment of the strategic direction of carbon neutrality and the rapid development of electric vehicles have led to the vigorous development of the energy storage industry in the country. And with the continuous expansion of the industry, batteries have gradually become standardized ordinary products, and the focus has shifted from battery hardware to components of energy storage systems (ESS), especially balancing energy storage systems (BOS) and bidirectional converters (PCS). . Important PCS in energy storage batteries Usually, a battery energy storage system mainly includes batteries, bidirectional converters, temperature control systems, fire protection systems, management control systems and other software and hardware systems. PCS, also known as energy storage converter or bidirectional energy storage inverter, is the core component that realizes the two-way flow of electric energy between the energy storage system and the power grid. According to some institutional estimates, in terms of cost structure, the cost proportion of bidirectional converters in energy storage systems is second only to batteries. Estimates show that in the cost structure of electrochemical energy storage systems, batteries account for about 60%, and bidirectional converters PCS account for about 20%. In addition, the energy control system accounts for about 10% and the battery management system accounts for about 5%. The main function of PCS is to connect the battery pack and the power grid (or load) to control the charging and discharging process of the battery and perform AC to DC conversion. Its core working principle lies in its controllable four-quadrant operating converter device on the AC and DC sides, which realizes AC and DC bidirectional conversion of electrical energy. To put it simply, it uses microgrid monitoring instructions to perform constant power or constant current control to charge or discharge the battery. At the same time, the bidirectional converter can also smooth the output of fluctuating power sources such as wind power and solar power, further improving the stability and reliability of the power grid. This is also the biggest difference between PCS and ordinary inverters. PCS can invert DC power into AC power and transmit it to the power grid or use it for AC loads. At the same time, it can also rectify the AC power from the power grid into DC power to charge the battery. The inverter is mainly used to convert DC power into AC power. In a photovoltaic power generation system, the DC power generated by photovoltaic power generation is converted into AC power through an inverter for daily use. It can be simply understood that PCS includes the functions of inversion and rectification, that is, it can perform two-way conversion of electric energy, while the inverter mainly performs one-way conversion of electric energy. On the other hand, it also means that PCS and photovoltaic inverters have the same technical origin. PCS market is growing rapidly As early as the 1990s, PCS was widely used in power systems, mainly used to solve voltage support problems during power grid faults. However, the bidirectional converter at that time was mainly composed of thyristors, which had low efficiency and large volume. After entering the 21st century, with the large-scale development of renewable energy and breakthroughs in battery technology, the application of PCS has grown significantly. The output of renewable energy is intermittent and unstable, while PCS can stably transport its stored electrical energy to the grid to improve energy efficiency. In addition, with the popularity of electric vehicles, on-board batteries also need to be charged and discharged through PCS. And with the development of power electronics technology, especially the emergence of new power devices such as IGBT and MOSFET, PCS has developed rapidly. These new power devices have the advantages of high efficiency, high frequency, high power density, etc., allowing the size of PCS to be greatly reduced and the efficiency to be significantly improved. In the 2010s, the global energy crisis became increasingly serious, and governments around the world proposed new energy development plans to promote the transformation and upgrading of the energy structure. In this context, energy storage technology has begun to receive widespread attention and development. As a key core link of energy storage systems, PCS's market demand has also grown rapidly. According to GGII research, the scale of China's energy storage lithium battery industry chain will exceed 200 billion yuan in 2022. The scale of the power energy storage industry chain will increase from 48 billion yuan in 2021 to 160 billion yuan in 2022, of which PCS will increase by 248%. . Nowadays, with the development of photovoltaic technology, the integration of power generation systems and energy storage systems to achieve stable operation of power on the power generation side, grid side and user side has become a new energy technology trend that has attracted attention. It can improve the efficiency and stability of photovoltaic power generation systems, and can also realize the storage and release of electric energy to cope with peak and valley fluctuations in the power grid and solve the instability problem of renewable energy. In addition, the integration of light and storage can also realize distributed energy management, improve energy utilization efficiency, and have higher reliability and security. Of course, there are still some technical and economic challenges in integrated photovoltaic and storage technology, such as battery life and cost, power storage and release efficiency, and other issues. However, the explosive growth of energy storage demand has driven the demand for PCS and also driven the inverter industry to switch to the energy storage track. summary As a key component in energy storage power supply, PCS will also benefit from the rapid growth of the energy storage industry. Domestic manufacturers continue to expand overseas markets, and research on PCS has also become a hot topic. This is of great significance for promoting the development and application of new energy storage technologies.
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