PCB carrying large current operation method PCB carrying large current precautions

Infineon / Mitsubishi / Fuji / Semikron / Eupec / IXYS

PCB carrying large current operation method PCB carrying large current precautions

Posted Date: 2024-02-04

PCB carrying large current operation method PCB carrying large current precautions

PCB is a common basic component in electronic products, which is used to connect and support electronic components. In some special applications, PCBs may need to carry large currents. This article will introduce in detail the operation methods and precautions for PCB to carry large current.

1. PCB operation method for carrying large current

1. Choose the right material:

When a PCB carries large currents, it is necessary to choose materials with high conductivity and high temperature tolerance. Generally speaking, copper is a commonly used conductive material, and thick copper foil can be selected to increase conductivity. In addition, it is important to understand the maximum temperature tolerance of the material to ensure that the PCB can function properly under high load conditions.

2. Increase the wire width:

When a PCB carries large currents, the width of the wire directly affects its ability to conduct electricity. Wider wires reduce resistance and heat, while also reducing voltage drops across the line. When designing PCB wiring, select the appropriate wire width based on the current size, which can be determined through online calculation tools or by referring to the IPC-2152 standard.

3. Increase the copper foil area:

In order to enhance the conductivity of PCB, the area of ​​copper foil can be increased. Improve conductivity by increasing the thickness of the copper foil or expanding the coverage area of ​​the copper foil. Usually, the area of ​​copper foil can be increased by laying copper on the inner layer, thereby improving the load-bearing capacity of the PCB.

4. Optimize PCB layout:

In PCB design, layout also has an impact on current transmission. Therefore, when designing high-current PCBs, the layout needs to be optimized. Place high-current sections in the center of the board and ensure sensible trace paths to reduce path length and resistance for current flow.

5. Use thermal testing and simulation tools:

For designs where PCBs carry large currents, heat is an important consideration. Using thermal testing tools, such as an infrared camera, can help detect hot spots on the board and identify potential problems in a timely manner. In addition, using simulation tools, such as electrothermal simulation software, the temperature distribution under high load conditions can be predicted to evaluate the reliability of the PCB design.

2. Precautions when PCB carries large current

1. Heat treatment:

When the PCB carries large current, it will generate a large amount of heat, and measures need to be taken to dissipate heat. Heat sinks or heat dissipation holes can be provided on the PCB to improve heat conduction and dissipation. At the same time, for circuits with high loads, you should consider adding a heat sink or fan next to it for further cooling.

2. Prevent overloading:

In PCB design, appropriate components should be selected based on current and voltage requirements, and ensure that their rated current meets the design requirements. Especially when using components such as power inductors or connectors, attention needs to be paid to their rated current and temperature tolerances to avoid overload operation.

3. Insulation and safety:

When PCB carries large current, good insulation and safety must be ensured. PCB boards with insulating layers can be used to prevent arcing and transconductance. In addition, pay attention to grounding and isolation to ensure safe operation of the circuit.

4. Detection and monitoring:

In applications where PCBs carry large currents, real-time monitoring and detection of current and temperature is necessary. By using devices such as current sensors and temperature sensors, current and temperature can be monitored in real time and timely measures can be taken to prevent problems such as overloading and overheating.

In summary, PCBs carrying large currents need to select appropriate materials, increase wire width and copper foil area, optimize layout, use thermal testing and simulation tools and other operating methods. At the same time, attention should also be paid to heat treatment, overload prevention, insulation and safety, and detection. and monitoring precautions. Through proper design and operation, the reliability and stability of PCBs when carrying large currents can be ensured.

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