Seamless field Ethernet via 10BASE-T1L connectivity
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Seamless field Ethernet via 10BASE-T1L connectivity

Posted Date: 2024-01-25

Authors: Maurice O'Brien, Strategic Marketing Manager and Volker Goller, Systems Application Engineer

10BASE-T1L is a new Ethernet physical layer standard (IEEE 802.3cg-2019) certified by IEEE on November 7, 2019. This will revolutionize the process automation industry by significantly improving factory operational efficiency through seamless Ethernet connectivity to field-level devices (sensors and actuators). 10BASE-T1L solves the challenges that have hitherto limited the use of field Ethernet in process automation. These challenges include power, bandwidth, cabling, distance, data islands, and intrinsically safe Zone 0 (hazardous area) applications. By solving these challenges for brownfield upgrades and new greenfield installations, 10BASE-T1L will help gain new insights that were previously unavailable, such as combining process variables, secondary parameters, asset health feedback, and seamlessly communicate them to the control layer and the cloud. These new insights will enable data analysis, operational insights and productivity improvements through converged Ethernet networks from field to cloud.


Figure 1. Seamless Ethernet connectivity to process automation field sensors and actuators.

Replacing 4 mA to 20 mA devices or fieldbus communications (Foundation Fieldbus or PROFIBUS® Pa) with Ethernet in process automation applications requires delivering both power and data to a sensor or actuator over a single shielded twisted pair. The advantages of single twisted pair cabling are lower cost, smaller size, and easier installation than more complex cabling. In process automation applications, the distance between field-level devices has been a huge challenge for existing industrial Ethernet physical layer technologies limited to 100 m. As process automation applications require distances of up to 1 km and require low-power and reliable field devices suitable for Zone 0 (intrinsically safe) applications, process automation requires a new approach to implementing Ethernet physical layer technology. And 10BASE-T1L is this new method.

The core function of 10BASE-T1L is a full-duplex, DC balanced, point-to-point communication solution, and uses PAM 3 modulation at a 7.5 MBd symbol rate and 4B3T encoding. It supports two amplitude modes: 2.4 V peak-to-peak for cable lengths up to 1000 m and 1.0 V peak-to-peak for shorter distances. The 1.0 V peak-to-peak amplitude mode means that this new physical layer technology can also be used in explosion-proof system environments and complies with strict maximum energy limits. It can achieve longer transmission distances through twisted pair technology and transmit power and data simultaneously on a single twisted pair. It belongs to the Single Pair Ethernet (SPE) media series.

10BASE-T1L supports very high power delivery to field devices; up to 500 mW in Zone 0 (intrinsically safe) applications. Compare this to about 36 mW using a 4 mA to 20 mA device. In non-intrinsically safe applications, the power can be as high as 60 W depending on the cable used. Because higher power is available at the edge of the network, new field devices with enhanced features and capabilities are enabled because the power limitations of 4 mA to 20 mA devices and fieldbuses no longer apply. For example, with the additional power, it is now possible to measure higher performance and enhance edge processing of data. This will unlock valuable insights about process variables, which can now be accessed via a web server running on field-level devices (field assets), ultimately driving improvements and optimization of process flow and asset management.

Leveraging rich data sets containing these valuable new insights requires higher-bandwidth communication links to transport data sets from field devices across process installations to factory-scale infrastructure or the cloud for processing. 10BASE-T1L eliminates the need for power-hungry, complex gateways and enables converged Ethernet networks across information technology (IT) and operational technology (OT) networks. Through this converged network, installation and component replacement can be simplified, and network debugging and configuration can be accelerated. The result will be faster software updates, simpler root cause analysis and field-level device maintenance.

Advantages of Ethernet Solutions

By converging Ethernet as the communication method across enterprise, control and field levels in process automation, complex, power-hungry gateways are no longer needed. This also enables a transition from an extremely fragmented fieldbus infrastructure that created data islands with limited access to data within field-level devices. By removing these gateways, the installation cost and complexity of these legacy devices is significantly reduced and the data islands they create are eliminated.

Until now, process automation applications have used the legacy communication standards shown in Table 1, but the new 10BASE-T1L standard overcomes several of its limitations. There is also a knowledge base challenge in process automation. Technicians and engineers retire, taking with them detailed knowledge of how to deploy, debug and install and maintain 4 mA to 20 mA devices or fieldbus communication systems with HART®. University graduates are not familiar with these traditional technologies, but are familiar with Ethernet-based technologies and can quickly deploy Ethernet-based network solutions.

Table 1. Comparison of 4 mA to 20 mA devices with HART, fieldbus, and 10BASE-T1L

Comparison
Compare

4 mA to 20 mA with HART
4 mA to 20 mA with HART

Field Bus
fieldbus

10BASE-T1L
10BASE-T1L

Data Bandwidth
Data bandwidth

1.2 kbps
1.2 kbps

31.25 kbps
31.25 kbps

10 Mbps
10 Mbps

Higher Level Ethernet Connectivity
Higher level Ethernet connectivity

Complex
gateways
complex
gateway

Complex
gateways
complex
gateway

No gateways, seamless connectivity
No gateway, seamless connection

Power to Instrument
Instrument power

Limited
power
limited
power

IS: 500 mW
non IS up to 60 W (cable dependent)
IS:500 mW
Non-IS, up to 60 W (depending on cable)

Knowledge/ Expertise
Knowledge/Expertise

Shrinking
knowledge/
expertise
right
Knowledge/
Reduced technical expertise requirements

Shrinking knowledge/ expertise
Reduced knowledge/expertise requirements

Ethernet
technology is
Ethernet
technology
very familiar to all college graduates
Familiar to all college graduates

The Ethernet standard ensures that all higher protocol layers with 10BASE-T1L work exactly the same as 10BASE-T, 100BASE-TX and 1000BASE-T, eliminating the need for complex gateways. In IEEE 802.3, all physical layers in the ISO 7-layer model are defined for Ethernet: 10BASE-T1L (see Figure 2). This means that devices can now use PROFINET®, EtherNetTM/IP, HART/IP, OPC UATM or MODBUS®/TCP and support IoT protocols such as MQTT, providing a simple and powerful way to connect devices in the field to the cloud. Way. Ethernet also makes software updates to end nodes simple and centrally controlled, speeding up network commissioning.


Figure 2. 10BASE-T1L in ISO 7-layer model

To communicate with a 10BASE-T1L capable device, a host processor with integrated media access control (MAC), a passive media converter, or a switch with a 10BASE-T1L port is required. No additional software, custom TCP/IP stack, or special drivers are required (see Figure 3). This gives 10BASE-T1L devices significant advantages:

• Although a media converter is required to connect to 10BASE-T1L, it only converts the physical encoding, not the content of the Ethernet packets. It is transparent from a software and communication protocol perspective.

• With an Ethernet connection, the sensor can be configured on a laptop or mobile phone, whether on a desktop or deployed in a manufacturing facility. For example, current temperature sensors have an additional interface (e.g. USB interface) to be able to configure the converter. Depending on the manufacturer, there are over 100 adjustment options. These parameters are currently not accessible through the 4 mA to 20 mA devices. HART allows access, but is often too expensive. Therefore, if something goes wrong during desktop installation, the 4 mA to 20 mA sensors will need to be reconfigured after field installation. Sensors connected via 10BASE-T1L are accessible over the network and can be updated remotely from anywhere.

• 4 mA to 20 mA devices can transmit only one process value. Via Ethernet, direct access not only to process values ​​but also to all device parameters is possible, such as asset management, lifecycle management, predictive maintenance, configuration and parameterization.


Figure 3. Field-level device connections using 10BASE-T1L PHY.

• Sensors are becoming more complex and software is more likely to be updated. Now, with a Fast Ethernet connection, this can be done anytime and anywhere in real time periods.

• Access advanced Ethernet network diagnostic tools to simplify root cause analysis.

Process automation cabling and network deployment

In process automation, unlike in machine building or factory automation, these sensors and actuators (flow, level, pressure and temperature) are not located close to the controller. It is not uncommon for the distance between sensor and I/O to be 200 m, and the distance from there to the field switch can be as long as 1000 m. Process Automation uses Type A fieldbus cable as it is currently used in PROFIBUS PA and Foundation Fieldbus installations.

The 10BASE-T1L standard does not define a specific transmission medium (cable); rather it defines a channel model (return loss and insertion loss requirements). The 10BASE-T1L channel model is well suited for fieldbus Type A cables, so some installed 4 mA to 20 mA cables can be reused with 10BASE-T1L, creating huge opportunities for brownfield upgrades of process automation installations.

Since 10BASE-T1L allows signal amplitude voltages down to 1 V on lines up to approximately 200 m, 10BASE-T1L can be used in explosion-proof system environments and complies with strict maximum energy limits for hazardous areas with up to 500 mW power.

Due to the significant increase in power compared to 4 mA to 20 mA (500 mW compared to ~36 mW), 4-wire devices that today require an external power supply due to the limited power of 4 mA to 20 mA can now be supported by 10BASE-T1L 2-wire device replacement, 2-wire devices do not require an external power supply, thus increasing the flexibility of new device installation.

Figure 4 shows the recommended network topology for process industries, known as trunk and spur network topology. The trunk cable can be up to 1 km long, has a PHY peak-to-peak amplitude of 2.4 V, and is located in Zone 1 and Zone 2. The branch cable can be up to 200 m long, has a PHY peak-to-peak amplitude of 1.0 V, and is located in Zone 0 and Zone 1. The power switch is located at the control level and provides Ethernet switch functionality and provides power to the cable (via the data line). Field switches are located at the field level in hazardous areas and are powered by cables. Field switches provide Ethernet switch functionality that connects field-level devices on spur cables to trunk cables and supplies power to field-level devices. Connecting multiple field switches on a trunk cable allows more field-level devices to be connected to the network.

Field switches can be connected via a ring topology for redundancy. At the edge, up to 10 Mbps is a big improvement for most applications where data rates were previously limited to less than 30 kbps. Since Ethernet is now used to connect end-node devices in the field, IT and OT have successfully converged on seamless Ethernet networks, enabling IP addressability of any end-node device from anywhere in the world.


Figure 4. 10BASE-T1L network topology for process industries.

Ethernet APL supporting 10BASE-T1L

The Ethernet APL (Advanced Physical Layer) specifies the details for applying Ethernet communication to sensors and actuators in the process industry and will be published in accordance with the IEC. It is based on the 10BASE-T1L Ethernet physical layer standard and is specified for hazardous location implementation and explosion protection methods. Leading process automation companies are collaborating under PROFIBUS and PROFINET® International (PI), ODVA, Inc., and FieldComm Group® to enable Ethernet APL for use across Industrial Ethernet protocols and accelerate their deployment.

Process Automation: Transition to the Seamless Ethernet Connectivity of the Future

HART-connected 4 mA to 20 mA devices have been successfully deployed in process automation applications for many years and are a tried-and-true solution that won’t disappear overnight. There is a large 4 mA to 20 mA customer base with HART-enabled instrumentation, and Analog Devices will invest in software configurable I/O by allowing access to any industrial I/O function on any pin and allowing Configuring channels at any time in remote I/O applications increases installation flexibility of these existing devices. This means customization at installation time, resulting in faster time to market, reduced design resource requirements, and broad application of common products across projects and customers. Examples of software programmable I/O circuits provided by Analog Devices include the AD74413 and AD4110-1.


Figure 5. Traditional discrete cabling will increasingly become the smart Ethernet network for all sensors and actuators.

Figure 5 shows the transition from legacy 4 mA to 20 mA connected instrumentation to brownfield Ethernet, where new instrumentation supporting 10BASE-T1L will coexist with legacy 4 mA to 20 mA instrumentation. Software configurable I/O connects these traditional instrumentation to PLCs, where remote I/O provides the aggregation point for 10 Mb Ethernet uplinks.

10BASE-T1L technology will be used to achieve seamless cloud connection technology in process automation. 10BASE-T1L eliminates the need for gateways and I/O and enables Ethernet connectivity from field devices to the control level and ultimately to the cloud. Unlocking field devices will generate rich data sets for advanced data analysis.

10BASE-T1L applications beyond process automation

10BASE-T1L is generating strong traction in building automation, factory automation, energy supply, surveillance, water and wastewater treatment automation, and ultimately in the elevator sector. All of these applications require higher bandwidth, seamless Ethernet connectivity to sensors (no gateway), and simultaneous transmission of power and data on a single twisted pair. Table 2 compares 10BASE-T1L with existing wired technologies in use today. Application examples include RS-485 used in building automation and I/O links used in factory automation.

10BASE-T1L device creates actionable insights to drive process optimization

The addition of the 10BASE-T1L physical layer product to Analog Devices' Chronous™ family of industrial Ethernet solutions will enable the transition to field-to-cloud connected process automation installations, including food and beverage, pharmaceutical, and oil and gas installations. place. The new 10BASE-T1L physical layer transceiver will provide the physical layer interface, thereby leveraging the many advantages of the Ethernet connectivity factory. With 10BASE-T1L, Ethernet packets are moved from the field level to the control level and finally to the cloud without the need for a gateway, thus achieving the goal of Industry 4.0 unified IT/OT networks. The greater power available enables new field devices with enhanced features and capabilities. Transparent IP addressability of each field-level device will greatly simplify the installation, configuration and maintenance of 10BASE-T1L connected instrumentation. 10BASE-T1L will enable new field devices, rich cloud computing data sets and advanced data analytics. Factory operational efficiency will increase by gaining actionable insights from its processes, accelerating future deployment of more complex process automation production facilities.

For more information about ADI’s Chronous portfolio of industrial Ethernet solutions and how they are accelerating the transition to real-world industrial Ethernet networks, visit analog.com/chronous.

Table 2. Comparison of existing communication standards and 10BASE-T1L

Protocol
protocol

Packet
Formats
Bag
Format

Cable
Length
cable
length

Bit Rate
bit rate

Power Supply
via Data Cable
pass
Data line power supply

Connector
Connector

Intrinsic Safe Use Case
Intrinsically safe application cases

PROFIBUS PA
PROFIBUS PA

UART/PROFIBUS
UART/PROFIBUS

1200 m
1200 m

31.25 kbps, bus, half duplex
31.25 kbps, bus,
half duplex

Yes
yes

M12, terminal screw
M12, terminal electrode screw

Yes
yes

Modbus RTU
and Other
RS-485 Protocols
Modbus RTU
and other RS-485 protocols

UART/Modbus
UART/Modbus

1200 m
(up to approximately
185 kbps, at 375 kb
300 m, at 500 kb, 200 m)
1200 m
(up to approx.
185 kbps, 375 kb,
300 m, 500 kb, 200 m)

Typically 19.2 kbps, bus, half duplex
Typical 19.2 kbps, bus, half duplex

No
no

DB9, M12
DB9、M12

N/A
N/A

I/O Link
I/O link

I/O link
I/O link

20 m
20 m

Max 230.4 kbps,
half duplex
Maximum 230.4 kbps,
half duplex

No
no

M12
M12

No
no

4 mA is 20 mA
4 mA 20 mA

Analog interface
Analog interface

>10 km
>10 km

-/-
-/-

Yes,
36 mW
yes,
36 mW

Screw
screw

Yes
yes

HART
HART

Digitally modulated over 4 mA to 20 mA
4 mA to 20 mA digital modulation

>1500 m
>1500 m

1200 bps, bus,
half duplex
1200 bps, bus,
half duplex

Yes,
36 mW
yes,
36 mW

Screw
screw

Yes
yes

10BASE-T1L
10BASE-T1L

Ethernet IEEE 802.3
EthernetIEEE 802.3

1000 m (2.4 V) with up to 10 joints (terminal boxes)
1000 m (2.4 V), up to 10 connections (junction box)

10 Mbit, full duplex
10 Mbit, full duplex

Yes,
yes,
up to 60 W
up to 60 W

In Ex Zone 0
up to 500 mW
In explosion-proof hazardous area 0
up to 500 mW

Terminal screw or IDC connector, optional single pair Ethernet connector
Terminal screw or IDC connector, optional single pair Ethernet connector

Yes
yes

>200 m (1.0 V)
>200 m (1.0 V)

About Analog Devices

Analog Devices, Inc. (NASDAQ: ADI) is a leading global semiconductor company dedicated to bridging the physical and digital worlds to enable breakthrough innovations at the intelligent edge. ADI provides solutions that combine analog, digital and software technologies to promote the continued development of digital factories, automobiles and digital health, address the challenges of climate change, and establish reliable interconnections between people and everything in the world. ADI's fiscal year 2023 revenue exceeds US$12 billion and has approximately 26,000 employees worldwide. Working with 125,000 customers around the world, ADI empowers innovators to exceed what is possible.For more information, please visit
www.analog.com/cn

About the author

Maurice O'Brien is strategic marketing manager for Analog Devices' Industrial Connectivity Group. He is responsible for the strategy of supporting Industrial Ethernet connectivity solutions for industrial applications. Prior to this, Maurice spent 15 years at Analog Devices in power management applications and marketing. He graduated from the University of Limerick in Ireland with a bachelor's degree in electrical engineering. Contact: maurice.obrien@analog.com.

Volker E. Goller is a systems applications engineer at Analog Devices. He has more than 30 years of experience in a wide range of industrial applications such as complex motion control, embedded sensors, and time-sensitive network technologies. As a commercial software developer, Volker developed various communications protocols and stacks for wireless and wired applications while actively participating in the development of new communications standards with leading industry organizations. Contact: volker.goller@analog.com.


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