Summary of sensor knowledge points (definition/function/characteristics/composition/function/classification)
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Summary of sensor knowledge points (definition/function/characteristics/composition/function/classification)

Posted Date: 2024-01-30
Summary of sensor knowledge points (definition/function/characteristics/composition/function/classification)

*Attachment: Yinghe Chuangzhan Electronics Co., Ltd. Selection Manual (Sensor).pdf
*Attachment: Yinghe Chuangzhan Electronics Co., Ltd. Selection Manual (Industrial Sensor).pdf
*Attachment: Yinghe Chuangzhan-Company Introduction N.pdf

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1. Definition

(Sensor), also known as transducer, is a (detection) device that can receive measurement (information) and then output it according to certain rules or other required forms to meet the transmission, processing, storage, recording, and display of information. and control etc. According to the national standard GB65-8, the sensor can receive measurement information and convert it into a usable (signal) device, consisting of a sensing unit or (interface) element.

The China Internet of Things School-Enterprise Alliance believes that the existence and development of sensors is to make objects have touch, taste, smell, etc., and make objects slowly come alive.

In the New Webster Dictionary, a sensor is defined as a device that receives power from a system and then sends power in another form to another system.

2. Main functions

In order to obtain information from the outside, people must use sense organs. However, simply using sense organs is not enough in studying natural phenomena, laws and production activities. Now the sensor comes in handy. Therefore, the sensor is an extension of the five human senses, also known as the five electrical senses.

With the advent of the world's new technological revolution, the world has begun to enter the information age. In the process of using information, the first problem we need to solve is to obtain accurate and reliable information. Sensors are the primary way to acquire them.

In modern industrial production, especially the automation process, various sensors are used to monitor and control various parameters in the production process, so that the equipment can work in normal or optimal conditions, so that the product can achieve the best quality. Therefore, it can also be said that without a large number of excellent sensors, modern production has lost its foundation.

In the research of basic disciplines, sensors have a more prominent position. The development of modern science and technology has entered many new fields, such as macroscopic observation of the vast universe thousands of light years away, microscopic observation of the world of particles smaller than FM, longitudinal observation of the evolution of celestial bodies over hundreds of thousands of years, and instantaneous response until the second.

In addition, there are various extreme technology researches, which play an important role in deepening the understanding of materials and developing new energy and new materials such as ultra-high temperature, ultra-low temperature, ultra-high pressure, ultra-high vacuum, ultra-strong magnetic field, ultra-weak magnetic field, etc. Obviously, it is impossible to obtain a large amount of information without mutually adaptive sensors. Many obstacles to basic scientific research lie in the difficulty of obtaining object information.

However, some new mechanisms and highly sensitive detection sensors often lead to breakthroughs in this field. The development of some sensors is often a pioneer in the development of some edge disciplines. Sensors have already penetrated into the widest range of fields, such as industrial production, space development, ocean exploration, environmental protection, resource survey, medical diagnosis, bioengineering, and even cultural relic protection. It is no exaggeration to say that almost every modern project is inseparable from various sensors, from the vast space to the vast ocean, and even complex engineering systems.

It can be seen that sensors play an important role in economic development and promoting social progress. Countries around the world attach great importance to the development of this field. It is believed that in the near future, sensor technology will make a leap forward and reach a new level commensurate with its important status.

3. Main features

The characteristics of sensors include miniaturization, digitization, (intelligence), multi-function, systematization and (network). It not only promotes the transformation and upgrading of traditional industries, but also establishes new industries, thus becoming a new economic growth point in the 21st century. Miniaturization is based on micro (electronic) (mechanical) systems ((MEMS)) technology, which has been successfully applied to silicon (pressure sensors)

4. Composition of the sensor

As shown in the figure below, the sensor usually consists of four parts: sensitive element, conversion element, conversion circuit and auxiliary (power supply).

5. Main functions

The functionality of sensors is often compared to the 5 main human sense organs:

(Photoelectric) Sensor-Vision

Acoustic Sensor--Hearing

Gas Sensor - Smell

Chemical Sensors - Taste

Pressure sensitive, temperature sensitive, fluid sensor - tactile

Classification of sensitive elements:

The physics class is based on the physical effects of force, heat, light, electricity, magnetism, and sound.

Chemistry, based on the principles of chemical reactions.

Biological, molecular recognition based on enzymes, antibodies and hormones.

Generally, according to their basic cognitive functions, they can be divided into heat-sensitive elements, light-sensitive elements, gas sensors, force sensors, loving-sensitive elements, humidity sensors, acoustic sensors, radiation-sensitive elements, color-sensitive elements and taste-sensitive elements. Ten categories (some with sensitive elements divided into 46 categories).

6. Main categories

1.According to purpose

Pressure and force sensitive sensors, position sensors, liquid level sensors, energy consumption sensors, speed sensors, acceleration sensors, radiation sensors and thermal sensors.

2. According to the principle

Vibration sensors, humidity sensors, magnetic sensors, gas sensors, vacuum sensors, biosensors, etc.

3. According to the output signal

Analog sensor: Converts measured non-electrical quantities into analog electrical signals.

Digital sensor: Converts measured non-electricity into digital output signals (including direct and indirect conversion).

Take a digital sensor: convert the output measured signal into a frequency signal or a short period signal (including direct or indirect conversion).

Switch sensor: When the measured signal reaches a certain threshold, the sensor outputs a set of low-level or high-level signals accordingly.

4. According to manufacturing process

Integrated sensors are made using standard technologies for the production of silicon-based semiconductor integrated circuits. Some circuits for preliminary processing of the measurement signals are also integrated on the same chip.

Thin film sensors are formed from a thin film strate deposited on a substrate and a corresponding thin film of sensitive material. When using a hybrid process, it is also possible to create parts of the circuit on this substrate.

Thick film sensors are made from a slurry of the corresponding material and coated on a ceramic substrate. The substrate is usually made of Al2O3 and then heat treated to form a thick film.

Ceramic sensors are produced by standard ceramic processes or in various varieties (sol, gel, etc.).

After completing the appropriate preparation operations, the resulting component is sintered at high temperatures. There are many common features between the two processes, thick film and ceramic sensors. In some respects, thick film processes are considered a variation of ceramic processes.

Each technology has its own advantages and disadvantages. Due to low capital investment and high stability of sensor parameters, ceramic and thick film sensors are more reasonable.

5.According to the purpose of measurement

Physical sensors consist of characteristic changes in certain physical properties of the material being measured.

Chemical sensors are made of sensitive elements that convert chemical composition, concentration, and other chemical quantities into electrical quantities.

Biosensors are sensors made from various biological or biological properties that are used to detect and identify the chemical components of living organisms.

6.According to composition

Basic Sensor: One of the most basic single-frequency devices.

Combination sensor: A sensor composed of a combination of different single-conversion devices.

Application sensor: A sensor composed of a basic sensor or a combination sensor and other mechanisms.

7. According to the effect form

It can be divided into active and passive sensors. Active sensors have action and reaction functions. The sensor can send a certain detection signal to the detected object, detect the change of the detected signal in the detected object, or produce a certain effect in the detected object to form a signal through the detection signal. The mode that detects signal changes is called action type, and the mode that detects responses and signals is called reactive mode. Radar and radio frequency range finders are examples of action types, photoacoustic effect analysis devices and laser analyzers are examples of cancellation.

Passive sensors only receive signals generated by the object being measured, such as infrared radiation thermometers, infrared cameras, etc.
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