The core of current conversion and control, the important role of IGBT in portable energy storage
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The core of current conversion and control, the important role of IGBT in portable energy storage

Posted Date: 2024-02-05

Electronic Enthusiast Network reports (Text/Huang Shanming) IGBT is the core device for realizing direct current (DC) to alternating current (AC) conversion. It combines the high input impedance of MOSFET (metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor) and BJT (bipolar type). Transistor) has the advantage of strong current carrying capacity. In portable energy storage, IGBT not only ensures the effective conversion of electrical energy, but also helps improve the efficiency and reliability of the overall system. With the development of new energy, the demand for IGBT is also growing, showing its importance in the field of energy conversion and management.

The important role of IGBT

The so-called IGBT is a high-power power electronic device, which is an on-off switch. The IGBT does not have the function of amplifying voltage. When it is on, it can be regarded as a wire, and when it is off, it is regarded as an open circuit. Its biggest features are high voltage, large current and high speed.

In portable energy storage, IGBT plays an important role and is mainly responsible for core functions such as voltage transformation, frequency conversion and AC conversion. For example, IGBT can effectively convert voltage and frequency, which is crucial for portable energy storage systems because they need to convert the DC power generated by the battery into AC power of specific voltage and frequency that can be used by various devices.

Portable energy storage devices often need to efficiently convert DC power from batteries into voltages and frequencies suitable for various loads, such as AC output. As one of the core components in power electronic devices, IGBT can achieve high-efficiency, high-speed direct current-to-alternating current (DC-AC) inversion function, so that the equipment can power AC appliances.

At the same time, IGBT is suitable for applications with lower switching frequency and high current, and its conduction loss is lower than MOSFET. This enables IGBT to provide higher efficiency and lower energy loss in portable energy storage systems, especially in high current applications. application occasions.

In BMS, IGBT is also used to perform fast and accurate battery charge and discharge control to ensure safe and reliable energy transmission, while reducing losses through fine adjustment and improving the energy efficiency ratio of the overall system. IGBTs have the characteristics of fast switching speed and high blocking voltage, so they are often used as current limiting or switching control components to prevent circuit overload, short circuit and other fault conditions and ensure the stable operation of the entire energy storage system.

In terms of cost control, since the cost of the energy storage system is mainly composed of batteries and energy storage inverters, the energy storage inverter accounts for a considerable part of the cost. As one of the key raw materials for energy storage inverters, IGBT has an important impact on controlling overall costs.

Specifically, the cost of the energy storage system is mainly composed of batteries and energy storage inverters, which together constitute 80% of the cost of the electrochemical energy storage system, of which the energy storage inverter accounts for 20%. IGBT is the upstream raw material of energy storage inverter. The performance of IGBT determines the performance of energy storage inverter, accounting for 20%-30% of the value of the inverter.

With the advancement of semiconductor technology, modern IGBT modules are small in size and light in weight, suitable for the compact design requirements of portable energy storage products, and can integrate high-power conversion functions in a limited space. High-quality IGBTs have good heat dissipation performance and high-temperature stability, which is crucial for portable energy storage products that may be used in extreme outdoor environments, ensuring that the equipment can maintain normal operation even under high-temperature conditions.

Application and development of IGBT in energy storage

IGBTs are widely used in energy storage and are crucial, especially in the inverter field. It can convert DC power to AC power, allowing DC power sources such as batteries to provide power to AC loads such as household appliances.

For example, in new energy power generation systems such as photovoltaic and wind energy, IGBT is the core component of high-voltage and high-power inverters. Through IGBT, the DC power stored in the battery or supercapacitor can be converted into AC power and connected to the power grid or supplied to the load.

During the charging and discharging process of the energy storage system, IGBT is used to accurately control current and voltage to ensure high charging efficiency and smooth discharge, while protecting the battery from damage and extending its service life.

At the same time, IGBT has high switching speed and low conduction loss, which can effectively improve the conversion efficiency of the entire energy storage system from storing to releasing energy and reduce the overall operating cost. As part of the power electronic conversion equipment, IGBT can achieve harmonic suppression, reactive power compensation and other functions, which helps to improve the power quality of the grid-connected energy storage system.

However, with the transformation of the energy structure and the development of new energy, energy storage technology is also facing new challenges. For example, how to improve the energy density and safety of energy storage systems, how to reduce the cost of energy storage systems and extend their lifespan, etc.

With the development and application of wide bandgap semiconductor materials such as SiC and GaN, the new generation of IGBT will combine these new materials to further reduce switching losses and on-resistance, increase operating frequency and voltage resistance, thereby achieving higher performance storage energy inverter.

Integrate IGBT with other components such as drive circuits, protection circuits, etc. to form an intelligent and modular solution, simplifying system design, reducing costs and improving reliability. It can also be combined with advanced digital signal processing technology and AI algorithms. Future IGBTs will achieve more precise real-time monitoring and adaptive control in energy storage systems to cope with complex and changing operating environments and load requirements.

For outdoor and special environment applications, IGBT will continue to improve its ability to operate stably in high-temperature environments and start at low temperatures to meet the demanding requirements of different application scenarios.

In general, in energy storage in the future, IGBT will develop in the direction of high frequency, integration, intelligence, and customization. Taking high frequency as an example, by increasing the switching frequency of IGBT, the size and weight of the energy storage inverter can be reduced and its power density can be increased.

In terms of customization, customized IGBTs will become an important development direction in the future according to different application scenarios and customer needs. For example, energy storage inverters for new energy vehicles require high-efficiency, high-power-density IGBTs, while energy storage inverters for home energy storage require low-cost, long-life IGBTs.

summary

IGBT plays an indispensable role in portable energy storage systems. It not only ensures the effective conversion of electrical energy, but also helps improve the efficiency and reliability of the overall system. With the development of new energy, the demand for IGBT is also growing, showing its importance in the field of energy conversion and management.


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