The next generation of building controllers opens up a new intelligent experience
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The next generation of building controllers opens up a new intelligent experience

Posted Date: 2024-01-17

With the continuous advancement of science and technology and people's pursuit of higher quality of life, smart buildings have become an important direction for future architectural development. The emergence of smart buildings is mainly to intelligently control and optimize the building environment. It applies modern sensors, network communications, automatic control, security, audio and video and other advanced technologies to optimize and combine building structures, equipment, services, etc. to form an organic whole and realize Energy-saving, safe, comfortable and sustainable built environment further promotes the construction of smart cities.

At the same time, global challenges such as urbanization and climate change are also accelerating the demand for smart buildings. By using multiple data sources in a secure, scalable, connected system, effective decisions can be executed in real time, resulting in a more energy-efficient and efficient environment. High-precision data enables real-time driving and interaction between buildings and users, creating a safe and efficient space that can be applied to many fields such as commercial, residential and even industrial.


Figure 1: Building control system

Building automation systems can maximize comfort, safety and energy efficiency while supporting scalability. From HVAC to lighting, fully improving performance requires a complex and reliable network that provides accurate data and connections. As building control systems become more localized, platform solutions are emerging that can save time and costs. Their low power consumption and flexibility make buildings easier to reconfigure to meet changing needs.

ADI's building automation system technology can meet the challenges of the proliferation of connected devices and support the realization of smart buildings. These smaller, scalable, low-power solutions enable monitoring, control and reconfiguration at local or higher levels using a building control platform approach, adapting not only to existing building network topologies and standards, but also to new, more advanced technology.

As shown in Figure 2, the building automation system is divided into four layers. The first layer from top to bottom is the management layer, where the server equipment and upper-layer management technology are all reflected. This layer can query the current working status of each subsystem through the server on the computer.

The second layer is the network distribution layer/integration layer. This layer will face each control device. The subsystems of the integration layer may manage a small system, such as lighting system, temperature system, heating system, etc. A common system, etc., which not only facilitates classified management, but also allows the development of more complex systems.

Next is the controller layer (Controller Layer). This layer has gone deep into the distributed control mentioned above. The core device of distributed management is here. It can be understood as an on-site brain through which decisions can be made quickly. For example, after it is discovered that the temperature is too high, the built-in PID algorithm is used to drive the fan to work faster to lower the temperature. Therefore, the building controller has a large number of analog sensor I/Os.

The bottom layer is the sensor layer (Field sensor Layer). This layer will be connected to a large number of sensors to sense the status of the site or the entire building. It is the key to obtaining information, so it is very important. In fact, strictly speaking, there is the last equipment layer, which includes compressors and other equipment. This layer is sometimes also connected to the controller layer. In short, it is the on-site equipment.


Figure 2: Building automation system

Modern building automation systems connect elevators, water pumps, fans, air conditioners, HVAC, lighting and other equipment together to achieve online monitoring. By setting corresponding sensors, the travel switch automatically controls parameters such as temperature, humidity, and lighting. As the core equipment of building automation, the building controller (Direct Digital Controller) is responsible for receiving system settings from the host computer, receiving real-time data from on-site sensors, and outputting control actions, thereby realizing a true closed-loop control system.

The building controller is also called a digital controller. Its core task is to sense external analog and digital inputs/outputs, because it has built-in many PID control units required for building automation to control the entire system. ADI has many products in building control systems, which can be roughly divided into several categories such as Software 10, 10Base-T1L, RS-485 and SPoE. The corresponding product introductions are below.

ADI product introduction

Input/output, analog input/output are the key signal input, output and action interfaces of building controller equipment. The traditional control system uses a complex set of channel modules, analog and digital signal converters, and machines and instruments related to the operating surface. Separate wired inputs/outputs to communicate with sensors require costly and labor-intensive manual configuration.

ADI's launch of I/O chips for building control and process automation greatly reduces the difficulty of design. It uses common interfaces to respond to different needs, greatly simplifying the complexity of hardware design. At the same time, it flexibly configures channel functions on-site for manufacturers and industrial operators. Possibility is provided.

Excelpoint, a technology-based authorized agent that has cooperated with ADI for more than 30 years, has created a number of solutions close to customer application needs based on ADI's product and solution portfolio over the years and has gained market recognition. Regarding the two methods of transmitting the link, Shijian recommends the AD74412R/AD74413R based on the current market.


Figure 3: AD74412R/AD74413R block diagram

Both products feature reconfigurable module channels that enable the design of remotely controllable systems quickly and easily without the need for extensive rewiring. This greatly increases the speed and flexibility of implementation for manufacturers and industrial operators, allowing them to make changes without significant increases in costs and downtime.

The AD74412R and AD74413R are four-channel software-configurable input/output solutions for building and process control applications that include functionality for analog output, analog input, digital input, and resistance temperature detector (RTD) measurements through serial Line Peripheral Interface (SPI) integrated in a single-chip solution. The kit uses a 16-bit Σ-Δ analog-to-digital converter (ADC) and four configurable 13-bit analog-to-analog converters (DAC) to provide four configurable input/output channels and a suite of diagnostics. The AD74412R/AD74413R each contain a high-precision 2.5 V internal voltage reference for driving the DAC and ADC, providing a variety of input/output modes.

ADI innovative connection technology: 10Base-T1L

New buildings are equipped with advanced technologies that can remotely control HVAC systems, detect space occupancy, automatically control lighting and monitor environmental conditions, making these buildings more sustainable while also improving the safety and comfort of building occupants . Advanced measurement, connectivity and processing technology developed by ADI to improve the sustainability and health of new and existing buildings, support building retrofits to reuse twisted pair infrastructure, and connect via 10BASE-T1L Ethernet Modern systems.

The core difference between 10Base-T1L and traditional Ethernet is the two-wire system. Conventional Ethernet is a three-wire system or more. Reducing the number of wires can significantly reduce the entire installation requirements, because traditional Ethernet requires dedicated network cables, while 10Base-T1L only needs ordinary twisted pairs to work, which solves the problem. It eliminates the challenges of on-site layout and installation, and is equivalent to using ordinary two-pin cables to obtain 10 Mbit Ethernet speeds.

Figure 4 is a rough topological structure of the entire communication link process in building automation. The data traffic is getting smaller and smaller from top to bottom, but the content is getting more and more. The top is very concentrated and has a large flow, while the bottom is scattered and has a relatively small flow. The building controller in the middle plays an important role in connecting the top and bottom. It converts the digital signals collected on site into digital signals and finally sends them to the server. There will be a lot of communication needs here.


Figure 4: Simplified diagram of building automation communication link process topology

RS-485 is still a relatively mainstream method in building automation. It has been widely used in almost every field of industry or civil use in the past few decades. Its biggest feature is the two-wire system, which is very convenient to use, and this daisy chain form is very easy to install and configure. The communication rate and distance can reach 38.4kbps and 1.2Km respectively.

Although RS-485 is widely used in building automation, the technology also needs innovation. There have also been some problems in the long-term market application process in the past. For example, the debugging of this architecture is relatively difficult. The failure of a single device node will affect the entire bus. It can only be removed one by one for inspection and then installed. In actual smart buildings, The construction area is very large, whether it is an airport, stadium or commercial building, this means a huge workload.

A typical smart building has controllers and various nodes that make up the building automation system. It is not easy to easily connect to all these devices. Excelpoint recommends ADIN2111, a classic switch product from Analog Devices that is compatible with IEEE 802.3cg and 10BASE-T1L standards. It can introduce Ethernet to controllers and edge nodes in point-to-point, ring and other line network configurations, reducing the workload of the controller. burden, making upgrading easier.

ADIN2111 is a low power, low complexity, dual Ethernet port switch. It integrates a 10BASE-T1L PHY and a Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) port, uses a low-power constrained node, targets industrial Ethernet applications and is compliant with the IEEE® 802.3cg-2019™ Ethernet standard for long distance 10 Mbps Single Pair Ethernet (SPE).


Figure 5: ADIN2111

The switch (pass-through or store-and-forward) supports multiple cabling configurations between the two Ethernet ports and the SPI host port, providing a flexible solution for line, daisy chain, or ring network topologies. Additionally, it is available in an unmanaged configuration, where the device automatically forwards traffic between two Ethernet ports.

The ADIN2111 supports cable reach up to 1700 meters and features ultra-low power consumption of 77 mW. The two PHY cores support 1.0 V pp operation and 2.4 V pp operation as defined in the IEEE 802.3cg standard, and can be powered from a single 1.8 V or 3.3 V supply rail.

The device integrates the switch, two Ethernet physical layer (PHY) cores with media access control (MAC) interfaces, and all associated analog circuitry, input and output clock buffer devices. The device also includes internal buffer queues, SPI and subsystem registers, and control logic to manage reset and clock control and hardware pin configuration.

The ADIN2111 integrates voltage supply monitoring circuitry and power-on reset (POR) circuitry to improve system-level robustness. The 4-wire SPI used to communicate with the host can be configured as OPEN Alliance SPI or general purpose SPI. Both modes support optional data protection or cyclic redundancy check (CRC).

Ethernet powered solution

SPoE (Single Pair Power over Ethernet) was also called "Power over Data Line (PoDL)" before, and the corresponding equipment is made with the 10base-T1L mentioned earlier. For example, customers need self-power supply after using the two-wire 10base-T1L Ethernet technology. After adding this function, the end node can transmit signals and supply power on a twisted pair, so the panel can be made very fiber-optic. Thin. Self-powered end nodes can proactively report some status information or alarm information regularly and regularly, instead of only passively accepting access from the master station.

In this regard, Shijian recommends a single-pair Ethernet powered device (PD) controller that complies with the IEEE 802.3cg standard - ADI's LTC9111. The wide operating range of 2.3V-60V combined with polarity correction makes this The controller is particularly suitable for classification-based systems in building and factory automation applications.


Figure 6: LTC9111 block diagram

SCCP-based classification ensures that Power Supply Equipment (PSE) only provides full operating voltage when a valid PD is connected. The LTC9111 utilizes micropower operation during classification to minimize storage capacitor requirements and drives two external N-channel MOSFET switches that isolate the output capacitance from the connector during classification and during surges.

The voltage monitor enables the external MOSFET when the PD input voltage exceeds the configured class's ON voltage threshold or after a forced delay. The EN output asserts after the controlled GATE pin ramps up, which also disables the MOSFET when the input voltage drops below the configured class's shutdown voltage threshold. The LTC9111 utilizes a low startup voltage of 1.6V to drive a pair of external low-side N-channel MOSFETs for polarity correction, which reduces power loss.

【Summarize】

To sum up, Excelpoint believes that ADI’s innovative technologies and system expertise are helping to shape the future of the smart building industry, and its products and solutions can provide configurable, simplified and high-performance development trends for smart building control systems. At the same time, it also provides a foundation for future technological innovation in the market and can help the market better meet various challenges.

About Shijian - the leading authorized component agent in the Asia-Pacific region

Shijian is a complete solution provider, providing high-quality components, engineering design and supply chain to Asian electronics manufacturers including original equipment manufacturers (OEM), original design manufacturers (ODM) and electronic manufacturing service providers (EMS) Management services. It has been listed among the world's leading distributors many times by authoritative magazines and industry organizations.

Shijian works closely with suppliers and electronics manufacturers to position themselves for new technologies and trends, and helps customers incorporate these most advanced technologies into their products. Shijian has R&D centers in Singapore, China and Vietnam. Its professional R&D team constantly creates new solutions to help customers improve cost-effectiveness and shorten product time to market. The complete solutions and reference designs developed by Shijian can be used in industrial, wireless communications, consumer electronics and other fields.

Shijian has a history of more than 35 years and more than 700 employees. Its business has expanded to 49 cities and regions in the Asia-Pacific region, covering more than ten countries including Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam, China, India, Indonesia, Philippines and Australia. In 1993, World Health established its regional headquarters in Hong Kong, World Health Systems (Hong Kong) Co., Ltd., and officially began to develop its business in China. Currently, Shijian has more than ten branches and offices in China, covering major large and medium-sized cities in China. With a professional R&D team, top-notch on-site application support and rich market experience, Shijian enjoys a leading position in the industry in China.


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