What are the three types of metal resistance strain gauges? What are the similarities and differences between metal strain gauges and semiconductor strain gauges?
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What are the three types of metal resistance strain gauges? What are the similarities and differences between metal strain gauges and semiconductor strain gauges?

Posted Date: 2024-02-05

What are the three types of metal resistance strain gauges? What are the similarities and differences in the working principles of metal strain gauges and semiconductor strain gauges?

Metal resistance strain gauges are divided into three types: resistance strain gauges, capacitance strain gauges and induction strain gauges.

First, I will introduce in detail the working principle of metal resistance strain gauge. The metal resistance strain gauge is a sensor that measures the strain of the measured object through the strain of the metal material. The basic principle is that metal materials will deform due to external forces, thereby changing their resistance value. Strain perpendicular to the direction of the metal wire will cause a change in the resistance value. This change can be obtained by measuring the change in the resistance value to obtain strain information.

Resistance strain gauges are the most common metal resistance strain gauges. It consists of an elongated piece of metal with two electrodes connected together to form a closed loop. When external force acts on the metal sheet, the metal sheet will strain, causing the resistance to change. Changes in resistance can be measured using circuits such as bridges. During the measurement process, the bridge will generate an output voltage signal based on the change in resistance, which is proportional to the strain of the object being measured.

Capacitive strain gauges use changes in metal capacitance to measure strain. When external force acts on the capacitive strain gauge, the capacitance on the metal piece will change. This change can be obtained from the relationship between charge and capacitance. By measuring the change in capacitance value, information on the amount of strain can be obtained.

Induction strain gauges use the electromagnetic induction phenomenon of metal materials to measure strain. When external force acts on the induction strain gauge, the magnetization degree of the metal material will change, causing electromagnetic induction. By utilizing the principle of electromagnetic induction, the strain of the object being measured can be measured.

There are some similarities and differences in the working principles between metal strain gauges and semiconductor strain gauges. First of all, metal strain gauges and semiconductor strain gauges both use the strain of materials to measure, but they use slightly different principles.

Metal strain gauges measure strain through the electrical properties of metal materials, such as resistance, capacitance, etc. Metallic materials have high electrical conductivity and low resistivity, so the metal strain gauges used usually appear in the form of resistors or capacitors. Their advantages are lower price and faster response, but lower sensitivity than semiconductor strain gauges.

Semiconductor strain gauges measure based on the properties of semiconductor materials. Semiconductor materials have higher resistivity and lower conductivity than metallic materials, and therefore are more sensitive to strain. The working principle of semiconductor strain gauges is that strain causes the concentration of carriers in the semiconductor material to change, thereby forming a change in resistance. By measuring the change in resistance value, information on the amount of strain can be obtained. Compared with metal strain gauges, semiconductor strain gauges have higher sensitivity and linearity.

To sum up, metal strain gauges and semiconductor strain gauges both use the strain of the material to measure the strain of the object. The principles they use are slightly different. Metal strain gauges measure through electrical properties (such as resistance, capacitance, etc.), while semiconductor strain gauges use the characteristics of semiconductor materials for measurement. These sensors are widely used in industrial production, research and other fields, and can effectively measure the strain of objects.


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