What is the role of the piezoelectric chip in the ultrasonic sensor?

Infineon / Mitsubishi / Fuji / Semikron / Eupec / IXYS

What is the role of the piezoelectric chip in the ultrasonic sensor?

Posted Date: 2024-01-18

What is the role of the piezoelectric chip in the ultrasonic sensor?

Ultrasonic sensor is a common physical sensor that detects the distance, position, shape and other information of surrounding objects by emitting and receiving ultrasonic beams. It is widely used in fields such as robot navigation, vehicle safety, industrial automation and medical imaging. The piezoelectric chip in the ultrasonic sensor is one of the core components. It plays an important role in converting electrical signals and ultrasonic energy.

Piezoelectric wafers, also known as piezoelectric ceramics, are special materials that have a piezoelectric effect. The piezoelectric effect refers to the change in charge distribution produced by certain crystals when they are subjected to mechanical stress, that is, a potential difference is generated or eliminated under the stress of the material. The application of this material in ultrasonic sensors mainly uses electrical signals to excite the chip to generate ultrasonic waves and convert the ultrasonic signals into electrical signals.

First, the piezoelectric chip plays the role of transmitting and receiving ultrasonic waves in the ultrasonic sensor. When an external voltage is applied to the piezoelectric wafer, the piezoelectric wafer will deform, and the ultrasonic signal of the natural frequency will be excited and emitted to form an ultrasonic beam. This process is called the piezoelectric effect. By changing the amplitude and frequency of the applied voltage, the amplitude and frequency of the ultrasonic beam emitted by the piezoelectric chip can be controlled, thereby changing the detection range and resolution of the object by the ultrasonic sensor.

Secondly, the receiving function of the piezoelectric chip in the ultrasonic sensor is also very important. When the ultrasonic beam encounters an object, an echo signal is generated. These echo signals will be received back by the receiving part of the ultrasonic sensor through the reflection of ultrasonic waves by the material surface. The piezoelectric chip plays an important role in the receiving process. It converts the ultrasonic signals reflected back from the object into electrical signals, and transmits these electrical signals to subsequent signal processing and analysis circuits. By analyzing the received electrical signals, the distance, position, shape and other information between the object and the sensor can be obtained.

In addition, piezoelectric wafers also have the advantages of high sensitivity, fast response and wide operating frequency range, giving ultrasonic sensors excellent performance. In ultrasonic sensors, the sensitivity of the piezoelectric chip determines the detection distance of the sensor to the target object, and the response speed determines the working speed of the ultrasonic sensor. Therefore, by optimizing the performance of the piezoelectric wafer, the performance and reliability of the ultrasonic sensor can be improved.

In summary, piezoelectric wafers play a vital role in ultrasonic sensors. It can not only transmit and receive ultrasonic beams, but also convert ultrasonic signals into electrical signals, providing a basis for subsequent signal processing and analysis. By rationally designing and controlling the performance of piezoelectric wafers, the accuracy, stability and reliability of ultrasonic sensors can be improved, providing high-quality measurement and control for various application scenarios.

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